Ancient Egyptian Mathematics

Ancient Egyptian Mathematics

Ancient Egyptian Mathematics

Ancient Egyptian Mathematics - Egypt Tours Portal
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Ancient Egyptian mathematics was the poetry of logical ideas, the music of reason and one of the main key components that led to the creation of the ancient world’s most advanced civilizations.

They considered the study of mathematics much like the Nile river begins in minuteness but ends in magnificence.  They used it to help them function as a society and solve real-world problems.

According to the great historian, Herodotus admitted the greek owned much to the Egyptians in the fields of arithmetic and astronomy and geometry famous greek scholars like Plato, Euclid, Eudoxus and Pythagoras, and Thales were learned in the Nile valley temples.

History & Facts About Ancient Egyptian Mathematics

It was developed from 3000 to 300 BC from the old kingdom to the Hellenistic era, everything started with the introduction of writing which gave rise to the scribes who used their holy gift to apply the basics of sophisticated mathematics in record keeping, tax accounting, record the lunar phases patterns to devise a calendar, measuring the land.

Some surviving papyrus like the Moscow papyrus of the 19th century and the Rhind Papyrus of the 17th BC were able to show the ancient Egyptians understanding of the numeral system which involved multiplication and fractions and the concepts of geometry such as determining the surface area, the volume of 3D shapes which was the cornerstone of architectural engineering and algebra.

The priests and priestesses were the ones who used mathematics and in charge of workers, surveyors, engineers, tax collectors, shop keepers, and masons while a much advance form of mathematics was used by the ones associated with the building-related jobs.

Ancient Egyptian Mathematics System

The evidence of the usages of mathematics can be tracked to the ivory labels at Abydos which were inscribed with numbers and used as tags for grave goods.

The Narmer macehead depicts an offering of 400,000 oxen, 1,422,000 goats, and 120,000 prisoners and in the old kingdom which prove the usage of a 10 number decimal system.

The ancient Egyptians used written numbers as they used a stroke for units, a heel-bone symbol for tens, a coil of rope for hundreds, a lotus plant for thousands which were additive but as for tens of thousands of even a million require hieroglyphics  or  as a million needed just one character while a million minus one required fifty-four character.

They had no concept of zero as it was discovered by the Indians and adopted by the Arab then reaching to the European civilization after 800 AD.

The ancient Egyptians were able to solve linear equations and quadratic equations which gave them the ability to estimate volumes of shapes and solids.

They used multiplication by a process of repeated doubling of the number to be multiplied and choosing which of the doubling to add together, the same principles used in modern-day computers algorisms.

With the rise of trade, many practical problems surrounding trade occurred which led to the development of notation for fractions.

Geometry in Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians exiled in the field of Geometry as mentioned in the papyrus of Rhind and Moscow by the use of brute force.

They know how to compute areas of several volumes of cylinders, rectangular and pyramids and other geometric shapes like polygon, circles

Ancient Egyptian Mathematics Papyrus

The Rhind papyrus was written in 1650 BC and discovered in the 19th century and is filled with many mathematical problems and solutions. It showcases a section on fractions where the Egyptians preferred to reduce all fractions to unit fractions like 1/4, 1/3, and 1/9. They wrote 3/4 as 1/2+1/4 and 4/5 as 1/2+1/4+1/20.

The Moscow Papyrus that dates to 1850 BC contains a method on how to calculate the volume of a truncated pyramid and the surface area of half a sphere; it also shows that the Egyptians used the value of Pi at 3.16 which is very close to our modern number of 3.14. it shows their standard of measurement was the cubit around 52.3 cm, these techniques were used in constructing the pyramids and other monuments all over Egypt.

The Ancient Egyptians were truly gifted in the art of mathematics as it shows in the majestic constructions all over the is a great country in the enchanting cities of Cairo, Luxorand Aswan, so get a better view of Egypt by boarding a Nile cruise to these incredible destinations.


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General Tips:

The currency of Egypt is the Egyptian pound.

Friday and Saturday are the official holidays in Egypt.

Keep a tour Guide by your side to fully enjoy your time in Egypt.

Try “Ful & Ta’meya (Fava Beans and Falafel)”, and “Koshary”.

Buy a local SIM card so you can call anyone you want.

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

The entire country of Egypt deserve to be seen with its every heavenly detail but there are places that must be seen such as the breathtaking Hurghada's red sea, The wonders of Cairo the pyramids of Giza, the great sphinx, the Egyptian Museum, Khan El Khalili, the wonders of Luxor like Valley of the Kings, Karnak and Hatshepsut temple and the wonders of Aswan like Abu Simbel temples, Philea temple, Unfinished obelisk and The Wonders of Alexandria like Qaitbat Citadel, Pompey's Pillar and Alexandria Library. Read More About the Best Places to Visit in Egypt

If you want to apply for a Visa On Arrival that lasts for 30 days then you should be one of the eligible countries, have a valid passport with at least 6 months remaining and pay 25$ USD in cash, as for the E-Visa for 30 day you should have a valid passport for at least 8 months, complete the online application, pay the e-visa fee then print the e-visa to later be presented to the airport border guard. You could also be one of the lucky ones who can obtain a free visa for 90 days. Read More About Egypt Travel Visa.

Egypt has a variety of delicious cuisines but we recommend “Ful & Ta’meya (Fava Beans and Falafel)”, Mulukhiya, “Koshary”, a traditional Egyptian pasta dish, and Kebab & Kofta, the Egyptian traditional meat dish.

The best time to travel to Egypt is during the winter from September to April as the climate becomes a bit tropical accompanied by a magical atmosphere of warm weather with a winter breeze. You will be notified in the week of your trip if the weather is unsafe and if any changes have been made.

You should pack everything you could ever need and but in a small bag so you could move easily between your destinations.

We have been creating the finest vacations for more than 10 years around the most majestic destinations in Egypt. Our staff consists of the best operators, guides and drivers who dedicate all of their time & effort make you have the perfect vacation. All of our tours are customized by Travel, Financial & Time consultants to fit your every possible need during your vacation. It doesn't go without saying that your safety and comfort are our main concern priority and all of our resources will be directed to provide the best atmosphere until you return home.

You will feel safe in Egypt as the current atmosphere of the country is quite peaceful after the government took powerful measures like restructuring the entire tourist police to include all the important and tourist attractions in Egypt. Read More

Wear whatever feels right and comfortable. It is advised to wear something light, sunblock during your time in Egypt in the summer and wear comfortable footwear like a closed-toe shoe to sustain the terrain of Egypt.

The best activity is by far boarding a Nile Cruise between Luxor and Aswan or Vise Versa. Witness the beauty of Egypt from a hot balloon or a plane and try all the delicious Egyptian cuisines and drinks plus shopping in old Cairo. Explore the allure and wonders of the red sea in the magical city resorts of Egypt like Hurghada and many more by diving and snorkeling in the marine life or Hurghada. Behold the mesmerizing western desert by a safari trip under the heavenly Egyptian skies.

There are a lot of public holidays in Egypt too many to count either religious or nation, the most important festivals are the holy month of Ramadan which ends with Eid Al Fitr, Christmas and new years eve. Read More

Egypt is considered to be one of the most liberal Islamic countries but it has become a little bit conservative in the last couple of decades so it is advised to avoid showing your chest, shoulders or legs below the knees.

Arabic is the official language and Most Egyptians, who live in the cities, speak or understand English or at least some English words or phrases. Fewer Egyptians can speak French, Italian, Spanish, and German. Professional tour guides, who work in the tourism sector, are equipped to handle visitors who cannot speak Arabic and they will speak enough English and other languages to fulfill the needs of all our clients.

The fastest way is a car, of course, a taxi. If you are in Cairo ride a white taxi to move faster or you could board the fastest way of transportation in Egypt metro if the roads are in rush hour.

The temperature in Egypt ranges from 37c to 14 c. Summer in Egypt is somehow hot and winter is cool and mild but sometimes it becomes cold at night. The average of low temperatures vary from 9.5 °C in the wintertime to 23 °C in the summertime and average high temperatures vary from 17 °C in the wintertime to 32 °C in the summertime. The temperature is moderate all along the coasts.

It is the home of everything a traveler might be looking for from amazing historical sites dating to more than 4000 years to enchanting city resorts & beaches. You will live the vacation you deserve as Egypt has everything you could possibly imagine.

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