Discover the rich history, cultural significance, and natural beauty of the Mediterranean Sea. Explore its diverse climate, ancient civilizations, and marine life in this comprehensive guide.
|Location||Southern Europe, North Africa, West Asia|
|Surface Area||2,500,000 km2|
|Average Depth||1,500 m (4,900 ft)|
|Max. Depth||5,109 m|
|Water Volume||3,750,000 km3|
|Temperature||12 °C - 28 °C|
The Mediterranean Sea carried the vessels of evolution across the world planting the seeds of innovation and progress in every corner of the earth. This article's main goal is to offer every traveler all the information and facts surrounding the heavenly Mediterranean Sea. This article was written by a group of very knowledgeable and professional tour guides, travel consultants, scholars, and tour operators who know all the facts about the Mediterranean Sea.
The entire world across the ages since the dawn of time was deeply affected by the miraculous powers and easy access to the Mediterranean Sea. It was the most important route for trade in the world especially during ancient times as it was vital for international trade and cultural & scientific exchange between different regions which are Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Semitic, Carthaginian, Phoenician, Persian, Roman, and Greek cultures. The Mediterranean Sea is a divine phenomenon that led to the rise of the most influential and famous civilization this world has ever seen even until today.
The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea that stretches from Asia on the east to the Atlantic Ocean on the west and it separates between Africa and Europe. It is a great sea of the Atlantic Ocean that is totally enclosed by the land of Europe, Africa, and Asia from the north, south, and east.
It is attached to the Atlantic Ocean at the Gibraltar strait which is only 8 miles (13 km) wide and 1,050 feet (320 m) deep, the Bleak Sea at the Sea of Marmara & the Dardanelles, and the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea by the Suez Canal. Located in the southeast of the Mediterranean Sea is the Suez Canal which connects it to the Red Sea.
The Mediterranean Sea region has a very diverse climate but it mainly has wet winters and hot, dry summers. The water temperatures are known to be mild during the winter and warm during the summer. All sides of the Mediterranean coastlines tend to have strong maritime moderation. The Red Sea has a Maximum temperature of 28 °C (82 °F) and a Miniature temperature of 12 °C (54 °F).
Spain’s eastern coast tends to be semi-arid and cold while the southeastern coast contains a hot desert climate. Both the Adriatic region and Italy’s northern coast have humid subtropical weather. The Mediterranean Sea is the subject of many tropical cyclones during September, August, and November.
|Month||Central Mediterranean (°C)||Eastern Mediterranean (°C)||Western Mediterranean (°C)|
The history of the Mediterranean is essential to understanding the origin story and the development of many ancient and modern societies. Some of the greatest civilizations ever created in the history of mankind can be found on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea which provides a water route that in turn provides trade, food, scientific & cultural exchange plus colonization and war. The warm and mild climate of the Mediterranean Sea region allowed various ancient countries to flourish, and create their own rule, art, science, philosophy, literature, and medicine which led to the creation of the modern-day Western and Middle Eastern culture.
For the entire region, the Sea itself was the most important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times, allowing for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Semitic, Phoenician, Persian, Greek Carthaginian, and Roman cultures.
It acted as a superhighway in ancient ages, allowing for trade and cultural exchange between peoples of the region such as Phoenicians, Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, Minoans, and Hittites on the eastern side of the Mediterranean and the Carthaginians, Celtiberians, Etruscans, Romans, Gauls, and Berbers on the western side.
It led to the rise of the Roman Empire which controlled the Mediterranean Sea and all its coastal regions from Gibraltar to the Levant for 400 years. The Byzantine and Arab Empires depended heavily on the powers of the Mediterranean Sea. Even today, the Mediterranean Sea is able to have a strong effect on the economies of the entire earth.
The Mediterranean Sea was referred to by the ancient Egyptians by many such as Wadj-wr/Wadj-Wer/Wadj-Ur due to the existence of papyrus forests. The ancient Greeks referred to the Mediterranean sea "hē thálassa" which is Greek for "The Sea", "hē megálē thálassa" which is Greek for "The Great Sea", "hē hēmetérā thálassa" which is Greek for "Our Sea", and "hē thálassa hē kath’hēmâs" which is Greek for "The Sea Around Us".
The ancients referred to it as "Mare Magnum" which means in Roman "Great Sea", "Mare Internum" which means Internal Sea, and finally "Mare Nostrum" which is Latin for “Our Sea”. Some of the ancient cultures such as the Levent were known to use colors to showcase the Cardinal Points such as the black sea as the color black refers to the north, red refers to the south, blue & yellow refer to the east, and the white refers to the west.
The term "Mediterranean" is derived from the Latin "Mediterranean" which means 'inland', and from the Latin words "Medius" (Middle) and "Terra" (Earth as in soil). The Mediterranean Sea was mentioned in the Old Testament as “Hinder Sea” which means "Western Sea", "Great Sea", and simply "The Sea". The Arabs referred to the Mediterranean Sea by many names such as The White Middle Sea, The Sea of the Romans, the Sea of Syria, and the Sea of the West. It has been called "The Incubator of the Western Civilization". The original name of the Mediterranean Sea is "The Euradrican Mediterranean Sea".
The Mediterranean Sea occupies an irregular depression that lies between 30° and 46° N & longitudes 5°50′ W and 36° E. It occupies an area of around 2.5 million kilometers (970,000 sq mi) which represents about 0.7% of the Global Ocean Surface. The Water volume of the Mediterranean Sea is 3,750,000 km3 (900,000 cu mi). The width of the Mediterranean Sea is 1600 km with an average depth of 1500m (4900 ft) and its maximum depth is 5267 m (7280 ft).
The coastline of the Mediterranean Sea extends for 27,600 miles (46,000 kilometers). The Mediterranean Sea's deepest point is 17,280 feet which is found in the Ionian Sea's Calypso Deep. The Mediterranean Sea is known to have clear blue water because most of the nutrients are located in the bottom layers of the sea, but the algae can be found in the top layers, as it needs the sun to shine, and light to fully grow.
The spacious Mediterranean Sea is considered the main transit corridor for the alien species of the invasion in the Black Sea and it is even been considered storage for the alien species which can be transported after that to the Black Sea.
The Black Sea is considered to be a marginal Mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean which is located between Europe and Asia; at the east of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe, west of the Caucasus, the south of the East European Plain, and north of Anatolia in Western Asia.
The Mediterranean is made up of many smaller seas and contains many subdivisions of seas within it that are all much smaller in size. The most well-known of these seas are the Alboran Sea, the Balearic Sea, the Ligurian Sea, the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Ionian Sea, the Adriatic Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Aegean Sea.
The Mediterranean Sea is a true living treasure with economic, cultural, geographic, and historical importance. The importance of the Mediterranean Sea is truly great and immense as It has changed the face of history by leading to the rise and fall of many civilizations. It has played an incredible role in shaping the world that we see today through its strategic location, powerful economic influence, and cultural exchange between a number of ancient civilizations.
Through its entire history, it has become the world's busiest maritime region. It acted as the key that united all of Africa, Asia, and Europe by becoming a natural water bridge that be used to connect various ancient cultures and civilizations also became a hub for trade through its many routes which made it easy to exchange many ideas, goods, and even cultures. The Greeks, Phoenicians, Romans, and Egyptians acted as the main elements that led to the birthplace of these glorious civilizations which over the centuries has led to the creation of some of the most marvelous ruins that provided the most incredible facts and information.
It is filled with a rich diversity of marine life that has provided seafood and fisheries for the surrounding countries for countless centuries. The Mediterranean Sea has for many years provided all different types of marine species with the ideal nourishment thus creating the most rich biodiversity environment.
It runs through 22 countries that surround the coastline of the Mediterranean Sea which are:
There are several other special territories that border the Mediterranean Sea from the west side to the east side such as:
The Mediterranean Sea has over 3300 islands some of the most famous ones found in the eastern Mediterranean include Cyprus, Lesbos, Crete, Rhodes, Euboea, Chios, Corfu, Limnos, Samos, Kefalonia, Naxos, and Andros, which are the home of about 15 million people.
In the central Mediterranean, there are Sicily, Krk, Cres, Brač, Korčula, Pag, Hvar, and Malta.
In the western Mediterranean, there are Corsica, Sardinia, and the Balearic Islands of, Majorca, Menorca, and Ibiza.
The Mediterranean Sea holds about 250 inhabited Islands out of 10,000 islands and islets. The biggest and the most famous of them include the following ten. The magnificent Island of Cyprus is a marvelous independent country found in the Mediterranean Sea known for having a magical mixture of different cultures that have a population of 1,088,503 who are found living in a magical space of 9,251 square kilometers.
The glorious historical city of Sicily found near Italy is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea which has a population of about 5,048,995 and covers an area of 25,460 square kilometers. The beautiful Italian Island of Sardinia has a population of around 1,672,804 and covers a magnificent area of 23,821 square kilometers filled with incredible ruins and incredible views. The enchanting French Island of Corsica has a population of around 299,209 people who live in an area of 8,680 square kilometers.
The great Island of Crete is the biggest Greek Island found in the Mediterranean Sea holds a population of 623,666 in a space of 8,336 square kilometers. The majestic Island of Euboea is a magical Greek Island of the Mediterranean Sea that has a population of 218,000 that are found in an area of 3,655 square kilometers. The Grand Island of Majorca found in Spain has a population of 869,067 who are found on an area of 3,640 square kilometers.
The phenomenal Island of lesbos is a Greek Island that has an area of around 1,632 square kilometers who are inhabited by 90,643 people. The legendary Island of Rhodes is a magical Greek Island that has a population of 117,007 which has an area of 1,400 square kilometers with the most spectacular works of art. The splendid Greek Island of Chios is the home to 51,936 people which has an incredible space of 842 square kilometers.
The Mediterranean Sea has huge Political importance as it is considered a marvelous maritime outlet for the Bosporus Sea of the Marmara Dardanelles, for the Black Sea, the previous Countries of the Union Soviet Socialist Republics, and the access of America to the petroleum of Algeria and Libya. That is not actually all that can be mentioned regarding the Mediterranean Sea as it used to be a transport superhighway in ancient times and it allowed to expansion of the cultural & trade exchange between people who are traveling from one region to another including the Egyptians, Persian, Mesopotamian, Greek, Semitic, and the Roman Cultures.
That sea was opened as a commerce highway by the merchants who were getting their goods from Phoenicia. That is not actually all that can be mentioned regarding the Mediterranean Sea as it used to be a transport superhighway in ancient times and it allowed to expansion of the cultural & trade exchange between people from all over the ancient world. The sea was opened as a commerce highway by the merchants who were getting their goods from Phoenicia and the rest of the world.
The blessed Mediterranean Sea has a magical marine ecosystem that contains a wide range of beautiful life forms which include over 17,000 marine species. The rich biodiversity is higher across all the continental shelves and coastal areas plus it is very stable in numbers because of the isolation of the Mediterranean Sea from the influences of external deep oceanic forces.
Most of the marine organisms originated from the marvelous Atlantic Ocean which has differing conditions when it comes to temperature and nutrient availability. The transition zone of the Alboran Sea has a mixture of a different number of species from the Mediterranean and Atlantic. Some of the most recognized bottlenose dolphins, harbor porpoises, Mediterranean Monk Seal, many species of whales, corals, sponges, mollusks, and loggerhead sea turtles.
The artificial waterway Suez Canal was built around the 50s thus connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. The first version of the Suez Canal was built between 1859 and 1869 which offered a direct route between the northern Indian Ocean and the north Atlantic Ocean through connecting the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea thus reducing the time of travel across the world by a great amount.
It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the marvelous city of Suez. The Suez Canal is now the busiest shipping lane in the world and acts as a key player in the global transportation network as 12% of the world's trade in goods passes through the canal annually.
The Mediterranean Sea has over 50 different species of sharks, some of the most recognized sharks include which include the Blue Shark which can be seen very commonly across its offshore waters and is known for its special blue coloration. The predatory great white shark can be seen rarely in its waters in the central and western parts. The Smoothhound Sharks are small bottom-dwelling sharks that are famous for their commercial use during fishing. The Short Mako Shark is also seen across the Mediterranean Sea which is known for their incredible agility and speed.
Many species of hammerhead sharks are known to inhabit its waters. The dogfish Sharks are also common across its waters and are known for their many species and smaller sizes. The Thresher Sharks are known for their distinctive long tail fins which are seen across many parts of the Mediterranean Sea. Angel sharks are flattened shark that lives in the muddy sandy bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea. The large spotted dogfish of the nursehound is a smaller shark species that is found living on the seabed.
You can also learn a lot about the great ancient Egyptian civilization and culture by checking our blog section where you will find nearly all of what you may want to know about, and if you are interested in paying a visit to Egypt, you will find so many variable options and terrific Egypt guided tours to look at and to see the best that matches your needs.
The Mediterranean Sea was very important for the Roman Empire for many centuries as it offered natural protection from any external threats because it acted as the ultimate barrier to the east and south. The sea was responsible for the growth of trade and economic prosperity which enabled them to take full control of the many maritime routes that connect many different cities and civilizations. The sea gave the power to the Romans to move and communicate with their troops very efficiently and easily leading to the growth of many Roman territories thus creating a perfect system of administration and unity that lasted for many years.
There is no time in recorded history when the Mediterranean Sea has completely dried up, but there was a time during the Miocene epoch around 5.96 to 5.33 million years in the Messinian Salinity Crisis, It witnessed the reduction of the water levels when it became very saline and an isolated body of water because of strong geological processes.
The Caspian Sea is the biggest landlocked body of water while the Mediterranean Sea is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. The Caspian Sea is by far less saline than the Mediterranean Sea and is surrounded by countries in the region of Eurasian. The Mediterranean Sea has many interconnected coastlines in western Asia, northern Africa, and southern Europe.
Sicily is the biggest Island in the central part of the Mediterranean Sea which is known to be an autonomous region of Italy.
The incredible Mediterranean Sea is salty because of its limited connection to the Atlantic Ocean which leads to the point that there is more than evaporation than an inflow of freshwater. The high rates of evaporation led to the increased level of salinity water in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Mediterranean Sea is famous for having a number of various shark species which include the Blue Shark, the Thresher Shark, the Hammerhead Shark, and the Great White Shark.
The Phoenicians and Minoans had a very significant and great influence on the ancient cultures that surrounded the Mediterranean Sea. On the island of Crete, the advanced culture and people of the Minoan civilization had a great influence on trade, art, and cultural exchange. The Phoenicians were skilled in their maritime expertise thus creating a number of great colonies and trade networks across the sea which had a deep effect on their trade, language, and seafaring practices.
The country that is known to share a border with Jordan and lies along the Mediterranean Sea is Occupied Palestine.
The Mediterranean Sea Temperature varies according to the location across its coast and the changing seasons. The average temperature ranges from 15°C (59°F) in winter to 30°C (86°F) in summer. 13.2 °C (55.8 °F) is the temperature of the deepest part of the water of the Mediterranean Sea.
The incredible countries found on the great coastline of the Mediterranean Sea include Egypt, France, Spain, Albania, Lebanon, Slovenia, Tunisia, Turkey, Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Libya, Montenegro, Greece, Algeria, Cyprus, Syria, Croatia, Palestine, and Morocco.
There are various kinds of shark species found in the waters of the Mediterranean Sea which include Thresher Shark, Hammerhead Shark, Blue Shark, and Great White Shark.
The Mediterranean Sea is connected to three different continents which are Asia, Europe, and Africa.
The Mediterranean Sea appears to be very blue because of a number of factors which are the scattering of sunlight, clear water, marine organisms, and phytoplankton presence.
The glorious country found between The Mediterranean Sea And The Black Sea is Turkey.
The Mediterranean Sea was created over millions of years through geological processes like the collision of tectonic plates and the subsidence of land thus leading to a great interconnected body of water.
The salinity level of the Mediterranean Sea is around 38 PSU at 5 m depth thus making it one of the saltiest global oceans in the world.
The Mediterranean Sea became totally rough in the winter months when it was the subject to many high winds and storms thus creating large waves and choppy seas.
The country that separates the black sea and the Mediterranean Sea is Turkey through the Dardanelles Strait and the Bosporus Strait.
The Romans called the Mediterranean Sea Mare Internum ("Internal Sea"), Mare Magnum ("Great Sea"), and "Mare Nostrum" (“Our Sea”).
The Suez Canal is known to connect the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea.
The Mediterranean Sea is very calm during the summer months when the climate is completely stable.
The Mediterranean Sea has been in existence for millions of years but many geological elements and human interventions took effect on the coast and water of the sea over the years.
The entire country of Egypt deserve to be explored with its every heavenly detail but there are places that must be seen before any other such as the breathtaking Hurghada's red sea, The wonders of Cairo the pyramids of Giza, the great sphinx, the Egyptian Museum, Khan El Khalili Bazaar, the wonders of Luxor like Valley of the Kings, Karnak & Hatshepsut temple and the wonders of Aswan such as Abu Simbel temples, Philea temple, Unfinished obelisk and The Wonders of Alexandria like Qaitbat Citadel, Pompey's Pillar and Alexandria Library. Read more about the best places to visit in Egypt.
If you want to apply for a Visa On Arrival that lasts for 30 days then you should be one of the eligible countries, have a valid passport with at least 6 months remaining and pay 25$ USD in cash, as for the E-Visa for 30 day you should have a valid passport for at least 8 months, complete the online application, pay the e-visa fee then print the e-visa to later be presented to the airport border guard. You could also be one of the lucky ones who can obtain a free visa for 90 days. Read more about Egypt travel visa.
Egypt has a variety of delicious cuisines but we recommend “Ful & Ta’meya (Fava Beans and Falafel)”, Mulukhiya, “Koshary”, a traditional Egyptian pasta dish, and Kebab & Kofta, the Egyptian traditional meat dish.
The best time to travel to Egypt is during the winter from September to April as the climate becomes a little tropical accompanied by a magical atmosphere of warm weather with a winter breeze. You will be notified in the week of your trip if the Climate is unsafe and if any changes have been made.
You should pack everything you could ever need in a small bag so you could move easily between your destinations.
We have been creating the finest vacations for more than 20 years around the most majestic destinations in Egypt. Our staff consists of the best operators, guides and drivers who dedicate all of their time & effort to make you have the perfect vacation. All of our tours are customized by Travel, Financial & Time consultants to fit your every possible need during your vacation. It doesn't go without saying that your safety and comfort are our main priority and all of our resources will be directed to provide the finest atmosphere until you return home.
You will feel safe in Egypt as the current atmosphere of the country is quite peaceful after the government took powerful measures like restructuring the entire tourist police to include all the important and tourist attractions in Egypt. Read more about is it safe to travel to Egypt.
Wear whatever feels right and comfortable. It is advised to wear something light and comfortable footwear like a closed-toe shoe to sustain the terrain of Egypt. Put on sun block during your time in Egypt in the summer to protect yourself from the sun.
The best activity is by far boarding a Nile Cruise between Luxor and Aswan or Vise Versa. Witness the beauty of Egypt from a hot balloon or a plane and try all the delicious Egyptian cuisines and drinks plus shopping in old Cairo. Explore the allure and wonders of the red sea in the magical city resorts of Egypt like Hurghada and many more by diving and snorkeling in the marine life or Hurghada. Behold the mesmerizing western desert by a safari trip under the heavenly Egyptian skies.
There are a lot of public holidays in Egypt too many to count either religious or nation, the most important festivals are the holy month of Ramadan which ends with Eid Al Fitr, Christmas and new years eve. Read more about festivals & publich holidays in Egypt.
Egypt is considered to be one of the most liberal Islamic countries but it has become a little bit conservative in the last couple of decades so it is advised to avoid showing your chest, shoulders or legs below the knees.
Arabic is the official language and Most Egyptians, who live in the cities, speak or understand English or at least some English words or phrases. Fewer Egyptians can speak French, Italian, Spanish, and German. Professional tour guides, who work in the tourism sector, are equipped to handle visitors who cannot speak Arabic and they will speak enough English and other languages to fulfill the needs of all our clients.
The fastest way is a car, of course, a taxi. If you are in Cairo ride a white taxi to move faster or you could board the fastest way of transportation in Egypt metro if the roads are in rush hour.
The temperature in Egypt ranges from 37c to 14 c. Summer in Egypt is somehow hot but sometimes it becomes cold at night and winter is cool and mild. The average of low temperatures vary from 9.5 °C in the wintertime to 23 °C in the summertime and the average high temperatures vary from 17 °C in the wintertime to 32 °C in the summertime. The temperature is moderate all along the coasts.
It is the home of everything a traveler might be looking for from amazing historical sites dating to more than 4000 years to enchanting city resorts & beaches. You will live the vacation you deserve as Egypt has everything you could possibly imagine.