Dakhla Oasis is in the new valley state about 350 km (220 mi) from the Nile River. It measures 80 km (50 mi) from the east to the west and 25 km (16 mi) from north to the south. It is situated inside a depression and lies from Farafra and Kharga. The entire area is 2,000 km² and holds many hot springs. There are about 16 villages and the most important one is the village of Mut. The oasis is known as the Labyrinth because of the various narrow alleys and secret passages.
The history of Dakhla oasis dates back to the 6th dynasty around 2550 BC when the oasis was located in the center of an important caravans trading route which linked Dakhla to the Kharga and Farafra and to the Nile valley in the west and Libya to the west.
Unlike most of the other oases in the western desert, Dakhla was agriculturally cultivated and rich with a number of springs like "Bir Talata" and "Bir El Gabal", that offer warm water and a magical relaxing atmosphere. Despite Dakhla being located far from centers of papyrus production, The oasis contains about five hundred tablets of clay with a stylus inscribed with hieratic language in the governor's palace at Ayn Asil (Balat) in the Dakhla Oasis filled with the record name lists, accounts, inventories, and close to fifty letters.
The Village of Mut
The village of Mut is the largest and most important location within the oasis. The name Mut was derived from the ancient Egyptian goddess Mut of balance and the wife of the famous god Amun of Thebes. In the southeast of Mut is a badly preserved roman settlement called Mut El-Kharab. The most attractive site in the village is the spa of Bir Talata which is located two km away from the center of the town, the water is rich in sulfur and iron which is used in naturally curing various illnesses.
The Necropolis of Al Muzwaqa
In the north of Mut village is a necropolis of Al-Muzwaqa which consist of around 300 rock-hewn tombs, the most famous tombs are the tomb of Petosiris and Petubastis from the 1st and 2nd centuries which contain all the traditional components of the ancient egyptian tombs, the decorations, wall paintings and drawings that show funerary processions and offerings to the deceased, and the ancient Egyptian gods watching the deceased entering the afterlife.
The Village of Al Qasr
About 20 km north of Mut is the village of Al-Qasr which holds a number of majestic ancient monuments. In the center of villages lies the 21-meter high minaret of Sheik Nasr El-Din mosque dating to the Ayyubid period in the 11th and 12th centuries, the narrow lanes of the village have very enchanting and ancient Islamic houses with doors decorated with acacia wood which holds the name of the owner or the constructor of the house being carved.
Deir El Hagar
North of Mut just near the necropolis is Deir El-Hagar known as the stone monastery which dates from the first century to the time of king Nero in the middle of the 1st century AD and was dedicated to the Holy Theban Triad, the gods Mut, Amun Re, and Khonsu. It was heavily renovated and enlarged in the Roman period. It is surrounded by massive mud-brick walls 16m long and 7 m wide with a small hypostyle hall with four pillars, two columns portico, and a sanctuary at the end of the complex.
Village of Bashindi
40 km east of Mut is the village of Bashindi which features a necropolis dating the roman period and contains paintings showcasing perfect pharaonic style and Islamic mausoleum from the 11th and 12th centuries. The Village of Bashindi holds many mud-brick houses that are enchantingly decorated and colorfully ornamented, which makes it a very popular place for travelers to explore. The village holds a necropolis dating back to the Roman period plus The Mausoleum of Bashindi was constructed by placing a large mud-brick structure with a dome over the Roman necropolis, which has some magically decorated tombs like Kitines which was painted in the Pharaonic style.
The Village of Balat
The village of Balat which is located northeast of bashindi is known for its historical and architectural importance dating back between 2289 BC to 2152 BC. It is famous for being an important historical and architectural attraction as the village is famous for being the site of two of the most famous archeological sites in Egypt's Western Desert; the Qila El Dabba Necropolis and Ain Asil, the capital of the Oases in the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt. The village dates back to the time of egypt old kingdom. A collection of amazing treasures of copper items, terracotta pottery, and copper jewelry which can be found on display in the Kharga Archeological Museum were excavated from the Mastaba tomb of Khentika, the ruler of the oases during the ruling period of King Pepi I plus the mortuary chamber was decorated with enchantingly bright colors and drawings.
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