Alexandria is the bride of the mediterranean sea offering every traveler the chance to witness the true allure and grandeur of the Greco-Roman wonders of Egypt in the most vivid and enchanting manner. The goal of this article is to offer every traveler all information and knowledge about the beautiful city of Alexandria. This article was written by a group of very skilled team of tour operators, tour guides, and travel consultants who know all the details about the wonders of Alexandria. The city of Alexandria got the biggest role in ancient history as it was associated with famous rulers like Alexander the Great and Cleopatra, the last active Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. The city was responsible for transmitting Hellenic culture to the rest of the Mediterranean after it was built by Alexander the great himself in 332 BC to be the center of the Hellenistic civilization. It served as the capital of Egypt during the Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine for about a thousand-year until the Muslim conquest in 641 AD where the official capital became the city of Fustat.
The city of Alexandria acts as the second largest city after Cairo with a population of 3.5 million people on a 2,679 km². Alexandria's location extends 32 km on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and is 138 km (114 mi) northwest of Cairo on the western edge of the Nile Delta, it also enjoys a wonderful climate with warm humid summer and rainy winters throughout the year. It accounts for two-fifths of the country's industrial production and acts as a cultural stage for art and beauty.
The city also houses the enchanting Catacombs also known as Kom Al Shoqafa tombs, considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages which was a final resting place for a greek Nobel family during the` Greco-roman period which is very praised for perfectly combining Greek and ancient Egyptian art in the finest possible manner.
It is quite famous for once containing the Legendary Lighthouse of Alexandria a.k.a Pharos of Alexandria that was built during the Ptolemaic dynasty between 280 and 247 BC to become a guiding beacon of light and hope and a symbol of the ingenuity of the ancient world. It used to stand at the height of 120-137 m (394-449 ft) which became the second tallest construction after the pyramids. At the time of its construction, it was known also as one of the largest buildings in the world and is considered by some historians as the first lighthouse in ancient history. Unfortunately, it stood for 1,600 years and was destroyed by a series of earthquakes in 1303 and 1323 AD, and in the same location using the remaining blocks of the lighthouse in 1477 AD the powerful citadel of Quitbey was constructed to protect the city from any foreign Navel attack.
Citadel of Qaitbay is a defensive fortress built on an area of 17,550 square meters located on the Mediterranean seacoast. It was established in 1477 AD (882 AH) by the mamluk Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf al-Din Qa'it Bay on the exact site of the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
There are many incredible museums to visit in Alexandria, the most prominent of which is the National Museum, plus The Royal Jewelry Museum, The Cavafy Museum, and the Aquarium. All these museums are able to showcase the diverse history of Alexandria, from the era of the pharaohs right through to the 19th century.
One of the most famous buildings in history is the original Royal Library of Alexandria that was a true symbol of knowledge and brilliance. It was the source of enlightenment and a center for art and science across the Mediterranean, the biggest library in the world, built during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–246 BC), and was destroyed by fire under mysterious circumstances by Julius Caesar during his civil war in 48 BC. It used to hold between 40,000 and 400,000 scrolls, which is equivalent to roughly 100,000 books, and employed over 100 scholars. In 2002 the new Bibliotheca of Alexandrina was completed and memorializes its predecessor in the most classical manner.
Pompey's Pillar one of the city’s majestic historical treasures, was named after a Roman triumphal column in Alexandria, Built in honor of the Augustus Diocletian between 298-302 AD, the giant Corinthian column originally supported a colossal porphyry statue of the emperor. Pompey Pillar is the largest column ever built outside of Rome and the only example of its kind ever built. Pompey’s Pillar is a freestanding Roman-style column found in the center of The Temple of Serapeum, found next to two well-preserved sphinx statues.
Fort Qaitbey is a very marvelous historical attraction found in Alexandria that was built in 1480 by Sultan Qaitbey. Like the Citadel of Qaitbay, some of the remains of the lighthouse were reconstituted in the construction of the fort. It is known to offer magical views of the harbor and the enchanting waters of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Montaza Palace is an incredible museum known as the Muhammad Ali Dynasty Museum who ruled Egypt from 1805 to 1953 until Egypt became an independent republic. This marvelous museum showcases the full history, the diverse heritage, culture, and ancestry of Alexandria of that era. The palace’s Royal Gardens are an important part of modern Alexandria which offers an enchanting and attractive view of the public park and the nature preserve.
The Roman Amphithearte is located near the center of Alexandria which was discovered while excavating the site of Paneion. The construction is located largely in ruins that still are very well preserved and remain a wonderfully atmospheric example of classical Roman architecture.
Stanley Bridge is only a decade old but it offers a majestic and beautiful view of the Mediterranean sea and the entire city of Alexandria. The stylish structure and elegant design of Stanley bridge have become an iconic landmark for both locals and foreign visitors who desire to stroll across the sweeping cornice to fully enjoy its enchanting views and memorable photo opportunities.
Maamoura beach is considered one of the most famous tourist attractions in Alexandria, located just east of the Royal Gardens of Montaza. It holds an incredible cobblestone boardwalk filled with food vendors and ice cream parlors and offers divine scenes of the Mediterranean sea.
The Serpeum of Alexandria is an ancient Greek temple constructed by Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-222 BCE) during the Ptolemaic Kingdom west of the Alexandria library to honor the Greco-Roman deity Serapis.
Al Alamein is a town located in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egyptian the Arab's Gulf, Mediterranean Sea, just 106 kilometers (66 mi) west of Alexandria and 240 kilometers (149 mi) northwest of Cairo. It is famous for holding Two pivotal battles in the desert west of Alexandria during World War II which some argue changed the tide of the war to the point where Winston Churchill is quoted as saying that, “Before Al Alamein, we never had a victory. After Alamein we never had a defeat”. Many cemeteries are located there, commemorating the heavy losses suffered on both sides during the two battles. It holds The German and Italian cemeteries which are located just north of the coastal highway between Alexandria and Mersa Matruh. The British cemetery is located to the south along with the Al Alamein Museum, which showcases artifacts and leftover equipment from the two battles.
Alexandria is a popular tourist destination because of the unbelievable number of monuments and levels of greatness and allure. It contains some of the most important tourist centers in the whole of North Africa, thanks to the ruins of its impressive historical and cultural past. It was constructed in 331 BCE by Alexander the great on a village called Racotis during his visit to Amun Temple in Siwa. He ordered his chief architect Dinocrates to build a city that will reflect his vision and immortalize his legacy plus to become one of the great metropolises of antiquity, and a true cultural heart of the Ancient World. The city of Alexandria grew in greatness to even become a rival to Rome before falling into decline in the 4th century AD. Alexandria was conquered by the Sassanid Persians in 619 CE. The Christian Byzantine Empire under Heraclius re-claimed the city in 628 CE but lost it to the invading Arab Muslims under Caliph Umar in 641 CE.
The Islamic Rule didn’t leave any touches on the city of Alexandria as the Mamluk and Fatimid dynasties spend most of their time in Cairo and settled with transforming the city into a naval port and a shipping port, Plus there is the famous El-Mursi Abul Abbas Mosque which is located near the Citadel of Qaitbay, built in the honor of the 13th century Murcian Andalusi Sufi saint Abul Abbas al-Mursi. When Alexandria fell under Ottoman rule, it lost all meaning to beauty, glory, or elegance but in 1805 under the reign of Muhammad Ali, the city regained its lost allure and became of the world’s most attractive destinations.
Alexandria was famous back in the day for containing various ethnic groups like the largest Jewish community in the world at that time and the first Greek translation of the Hebrew holy Book. Alexandria was home to the largest population of Jews and the Septuagint. The city became important to Egyptian Christians as the political and cultural center of Egypt during the rise of Christianity. The seat of the Coptic Orthodox Papacy is still located in Alexandria to this day.
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