How the Pyramids were built is a highly debated question that has wondered the minds of scholars from all over the world for thousands of Years. The main goal of this article is to offer every traveler all the information and facts about how the ancient Egyptian were able to build the pyramids. This article was written by a group of a very knowledgeable and professional team of Egyptologists, tour guides, travel consultants, and historians who know all the details about how the pyramids of Egypt were built.
One of history's most ancient puzzles is the construction of the pyramids, over and over again through the course of history, many nations, scholars, and scientists asked the question of "How The Pyramids Were Built". 4,500 years ago Giza Pyramids were constructed to immortalize the legacy of the ancient Egyptian civilization for many generations to come, it also was able to offer insight into the life aspects of the ancient Egyptians from religious to agricultural practices through the magical wall illustrations of the pyramids.
How the pyramids were built is the world's oldest puzzle and many highly educated scholars gave many controversial theories and hypotheses. the most generally believed theory is that the massive limestone blocks were carved from the quarries in Giza using copper and bronze chisels, then dragged and lifted into the accurate position. The manner of the movement and placement of these stones blocks and the size of the workforce are under great debate even today.
Egyptian Pyramid constructions techniques are one of history's greatest mysteries. The great pyramids of Giza stand as the ultimate puzzle and the best source for information, It was constructed over 4,500 years ago with over 2 million stones and took 20 to 30 years to make but many have argued over the question "How". There are two common theories that many believe have played a part in constructing the pyramids the ramp theory and the water shaft theory plus the limestone concrete theory. The complexity of the construction and level of accuracy and magnitude became the source of a number of pseudoscientific theories as means of providing any sort of explanations.
The Ramp Theory is considered by far the most accepted by the Egyptology community who believe that the pyramid was made by sheer will and human power suing a massive workforce and incredible intelligence in transporting the stones across the desert through sleds and ropes. They used wet sand to drag the stones to reduce the fraction and make the dragging process easier. Many images and carvings can be seen on all the temples. When the stones arrived after being dragged across the desert, the ancient Egyptians used a series of ramps to drag the stones all the way to the top. The ancient Egyptians either used a straight ramp up one side or a spiraling ramp wrapped around the pyramid but many believe a combination of the two was used. Levers were used once a significant height was reached and ramps were no longer useful and needed. A number of documents and images were discovered to support the facts that sleds were made.
The Water Shaft Theory states that the e stones were transported through a water canal that was built all the way to the constructions sites which allowed the stones to float across the waters which made the transportation process very easy. The floats were made of cedar wood or inflated animal skins wrapped in papyrus, then attached to the stones which world allow the stones to be pulled from the shore. then the floating stones are led to the canals all the way to a moat which is found all around the construction site which allows the stone blocks to be taken to any place needed. To Float the blocks up the hill four water pipelines were used plus extended when the pyramid grow in size. The gates controlled how the stone blocks moved all the way to the top from the moat, a pool of water on the top of the construction site "water elevators" allowed for more floating and positioning without any dragging or real heavy lifting. there is no concrete or valid evidence of this theory, but many traces of water throughout the structure and imperfections across the middle of all four sides have been identified to support this theory.
There are many numbers of Throeies about the construction of the pyramids that can be found floating all over the internet such as The limestone concrete theory which states that soft limestone with a high content of kaolinite was quarried in the wadi on the southern side of the Giza Plateau. the clay wet limestone concrete would be carried and packed in reuseable wooden molds then in a few days the blocks are turned into stones.
The techniques used in constructing the Egyptian pyramids have baffled historians and scientists for countless years. The pyramids are the subject of many controversial hypotheses, the general theory is based on the belief that the huge stones were carved from the quarries using copper chisels, then these blocks were dragged and lifted into position but the method concerning the movement and placement of these stones were under a great dispute.
The form of the workforce was under a huge debate as it was believed that the pyramids were constructed using slave labor but after research published in 1990, it turned out that the pyramids were built by "tens of thousands of free skilled workers" who lived and buried near the great pyramid and worked for a salary, a wage of ten loaves of bread or a jug of beer per day or a form of tax payment until the construction was completed. They used hammers, chisels, and levers capable of handling the stones. The workforce was highly organized and managed to the highest level.
The most important element in constructing a pyramid is choosing the right location. The pyramids were constructed on the west side of the Nile River where the sunset which was believed where the dead enter the underworld, the location also needed to be on the higher ground to avoid the danger of flooding at the time of the Nile's inundation. The location must be in close proximity from the Nile River and on a firm rock base capable of supporting the massive weight of any Pyramids with cracking or showing the sign of structural weakness and more importantly must be in the close reach of the current capital.
The Pyramids were constructed using locally quarried limestone which was the main material of choice for all the pyramids. A higher quality of limestone quarried near modern Cairo was used for the outer casing. Granite was used in the construction of architectural elements of the roofs and the burial chamber and also in the outer casing like King Menkaure Pyramid, it was quarried near Aswan. The workers begin their work by preparing a strong foundation by removing the loose sand from the rock base which was made completely flat.
The flat base was accomplished by building low mud walls all around the base and cutting the channels in a grid pattern over the surface, then afterward the channels would be filled with water and the level at which the water reached is marked. After the water of drained, all the sticking out rock would be removed and any void would be filled with stones in order to make the surface level perfectly flat.
The ancient Egyptians were highly advanced in the field of astronomy as Each side of the pyramid was designed to face one of the cardinal points. The ancient Egyptian builders observed the rising and setting of the northern star on the horizon which explains why they began by establishing the true north first then the rest of the other directions. They were able to make all the four sides exactly the same length and in the right perfect corners. They bisected the angle thus obtaining north and south lines, they also used their instruments in drawing right angels and finding the east and the west angels.
One of the biggest mysteries surrounding the construction of the pyramid is the process of which the massive limestone blocks weighing every 2.2 tons were moved across the desert. A wall painting on a tomb dating to 1900 BC depicts 170 men dragging a huge state using ropes attached to a sled and in front of it are men pouring water over the sand in order to reduce friction and make it easier to operate the sled. The ancient Egyptians understood that adding water to the sand increased its stiffness to drag the sleds more easily across the surface.
They calculated the amount the water necessary to reduce the friction depending on the type of sand, the optimal amount of waterfalls between 2% and 5% of the complete value of the sand. This discovery is highly important as it not only explains how the blocks were moved but also helps the researchers in understanding the behavior of other granular materials like coal or even asphalt or concrete.
One of the most acknowledged theories on what method was used to raise the blocks among the Egyptologists is ramps. The Greek historian shows in his writings the usage of levers being used to raise the blocks from one level to the next. As the pyramids grow in size so did the ramps to the point where the ramp has to be as huge as the pyramid.
Internal ramps were also used as the grand gallery is believed to have acted as a trolley guide for counterbalance weights. There is also a theory which states that a form of limestone concrete was cast in wooden molds then it would transform from a wet to a hard substance after undergoing a chemical reaction. The method of the pyramids is completely shrouded with mystery and many theories are still open for discussion.
Egypt has always been the home of the impossible, within the heart of the country in Cairo lies the miraculous Pyramids of Giza where the impossible is yet to be explained. The cities of Egypt like Giza, Cairo, Aswan, and Luxor are the purest reflection of how the ancient Egyptians vision was extraordinary, so we offer you the chance to enjoy a marvelous trip to Egypt with Nile river cruise, also our Cairo day tours are the best way to book your trip if you are in Cairo, or check our Egypt day tours if you are in any Egypt top destination to arrange your tours.
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