"If History Were Taught in the Form of Stories, It Would Never Be Forgotten" and that’s how Egypt achieved immortality. The ancient Egyptians believed in cause and effect, for every action there is a reaction as stated by Newton's third law, the ancient Egyptians believed that the primary action had to come from a source and that's why the ancient Egyptians believed in the existence of divine creations that can create, reshape and control everything around them even themselves. The ancient Egyptians looked at the stars, the flooding of the Nile River, the sunrise & sunset, and more to seek an explanation that came in the shape of a vast pantheon of gods. Great tales, temples, and valleys were built in the honor of these heavenly creatures that they came to know as Ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses who were responsible for all the gifts and pleasures of every single soul in Egypt.
Here is a list of famous 50 ancient Egyptian gods & goddesses:
The ancient Egyptians saw that the ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses were celestial beings that can unlock the wonders of the milky way, perform miracles and great acts of wonder, that's why they decided to honor them by embodying them into a physical form that can be found all over Egypt in Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor, & Aswan. Their entire life focused on the worship of the ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses which became an integral part of their daily lives. Ancient Egypt had over 2000 ancient Egyptian deities that each represented and controlled an aspect of the environment and had a deep & vital role in the immortal quest of every human being.
One key component of their spiritual awareness was the magic or what they called "Heka" which was a divine power that holds everything together in the mortal and divine life. Egypt has enjoyed a massive number of stories and myths that affected their life deeply, most of these Egyptian mythology gods' stories were discovered on the walls of their temples in Luxor or passed down from one generation to another. Ancient Egyptian goddesses & gods provided the people with everything they needed. The deities of ancient Egypt had names, unique powers, special features & transformations, individual personalities, traits, characteristics, style of clothing, personal sacred objects which had an impact on the infinite sphere of Egyptian society. The ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses were known to take the physical form of a human and an animal like a phoenix, bull, cat, crocodile, lioness, falcon, and more.
The ancient Egyptian Gods & Goddesses are a heavenly physical & spiritual flection of the ancient Egyptian imagination & power of creativity, Egypt tours will be the ideal means to fully discover & explore the incredible monuments & attractions that preserve the existence & memory of the ancient Egyptian deities.
Amun is the god of all gods, creator of existence, the supreme leader of gods and humanity in both the world of the living and the dead. He was the patron of the city of Thebes and even when the god Ra rose to Power since the days of the old kingdom of Egypt (2686-2181 BCE), Amun’s position was untouched as he even merged with him to become the supreme god Amun-Ra "The Hidden One" during the 16th to the 13th centuries BC during the new kingdom of Egypt (1570 – 1050 BC) who was worshipped with his wife goddess Mut and son Khonsu the moon god as the Theban triad. The position of the priestess wife of Amun was very powerful to the point where it can rival the position of a pharaoh. He can be seen as a human wearing a double plumed crown and sometimes depicted as a ram or a goose as shown by his time in the Karnak.
RA "Atum" is the great sun god. He is the personification of this mighty star and everything in Egypt including the pyramids of Giza. Ra was one of the first celestial beings who created the universe, life, and order instead of chaos. Ra was the supreme creator who ruled over the land of both the living and the dead. He is the father of the deities of Shu "The Air God" and the Tefnut "Goddess of Moisture and Rain". He was the one celestial divine being to stand on the primordial mound of chaos and create life BenBen and order and create the universe. He looked like a child in the morning, an adult almost high noon, and an old man in the evening, he wears a crown with a solar disk upon which a sacred asp rested. He was the most powerful god who would protect other gods and souls from the primordial serpent "Apophis" as shown by his time in the Karnak.
Osiris is one of the early gods of creation and the five original gods, the great-grandson of Amun, and the ruler of the Underworld. He was the god of fertility who grow in fame, popularity, and influence because of the Osiris Myth in which he is killed by his evil brother Set "God of the Desert" then brought back to life by his sister-wife Isis "Goddess of Motherhood and Healing" and Horus the Elder, then descends to the underworld and became a lord and judge of the dead. In the afterlife, he is the main judge in the hall of Truth who weighs the souls of the dead against a white feather of the goddess Maat "Goddess of Truth and Justice". He is depicted as a mummy with usually green or black skin, two ostrich feathers, holding a crook and flail of kingship, and a beard. Many ancient Egyptians chose to be buried near his cult in Abydos.
Isis is also known as Mut-Netier "Mother of the Gods" and West- Kekau "The Great Magic" has become a super deity that had a connection with virtually every aspect of humanity in time, life, and death. She was the wife of Osiris the ruler of the underworld and the mother of Hours the falcon sky god. She was known as Eset which means "Goddess of the Throne". She became the most powerful and famous Egyptian mythology goddess due to the Osiris myth and her true care for other gods and humans as she appeared to them after death to guide them to paradise. She was depicted with a tail and a throne on her head and sometimes breastfeeding infant Horus. She had a massive cult that was extremely powerful that was worshiped in every part of the world from Britain through Europe in Greece and Rome to Asia.
Hathor is one of the most famous and important ancient deities in Egyptian mythology known as the lady of drunkenness and lady of the sycamore. She was the goddess of drunkenness, joy, music, dancing, celebration, women, childbirth, and love. She was seen as a celestial mother goddess that was connected to the sacred reflection of the Milky Way as the Nile River. She is also associated with gratitude and being thankful. In her earliest form, she was known as Sekhment the goddess of destruction and vengeance who would execute punishment on behave of Ra on humanity because of their sins. Ra offered her a vat of beer dyed red at Dendera which she drank and fell asleep and woke up as Hathor. She is the daughter of Ra, who defends paradise from Apep aboard the sun barge of Ra, She also helps guide the souls in the afterlife to Paradise. She lives in sycamore trees so she became known as "The Lady of the Sycamore". She is depicted as a woman with a cow’s head or simply a cow.
Ma'at is the goddess of justice, truth, and most importantly harmony. She is considered to be one of the most important deities as the concept of balance & harmony and was a central focus to the culture and every aspect of the ancient Egyptian and an important component of all of time and space within existence. She put the stars in the sky and regulated all four seasons. She also took part in the afterlife as she transforms into the feather of truth that weighed against the hearts to make the right judgment to enter paradise "The Fields of Reeds" or fade into the void by Ammut. The word Maat become known as "That Which Is Straight" and throughout the entire history of the ancient Egyptian civilization, every aspect or any action has been passed on the principles of Maa’t. She was presented as a woman wearing an ostrich plume and sitting on her heels.
The legendary deity of the sky, the son of Osiris the ruler of the underworld, and Isis the goddess of motherhood and healing Horus is an avian god who is directly connected to the sky, the sun, and the divine power of the heavens. He is very famous and well-known because of his relation to the kings of ancient Egypt since the First Dynasty (c. 3150-2890 BCE) as he’s a symbol of victory and order and all the kings believed that they were the incarnation of Horus in life and his father Osiris in death because of the Osiris Myth which he challenges and defeats his evil uncle Set to avenge his father and restore order and peace to Egypt. His symbol is the Hawk and the famous Eye of Horus the Wadjet eye which he sacrificed to save his father. Many confuse him with Hours the ELDER one of the early gods of creation. He takes the shape of a giant hawk or a falcon and usually features as a man with the head of a Hawk. The Four Sons of Horus Hapy, Imset, Duamutef, and Qebehsenuef were responsible for the dead in the four canopic jars placed in the tomb where each had his own cardinal point to protect the internal organ stored inside the jar.
One of the most recognized ancient Egyptian gods is Anubis who is the god of the dead, mummification, tombs, the afterlife, embalming, cemeteries, the Underworld, and judgment. He is considered to be one of the most renowned, mentioned, and depicted gods of Egyptians. He is the son of Osiris and Nephthys. He is known by many names and had many roles; he was an embalmer, protector of tombs, guide of souls, and the weigher of hearts and guardian of the scales, "First of the Westerners", "He Who is Upon his Sacred Mountain", "Lord of the Sacred Land", "The Dog who Swallows Millions", "Ruler of the Nine Bow", "He Who is in the Place of Embalming", "Master of Secrets", and "Foremost of the Divine Booth". He is known to be the original god of the dead, who determined if a soul would be allowed to enter the afterlife and guided the souls of the dead to the hall of Truth in the underworld to take part in the ritual of weighing the heart to the feather of Ma'at in the afterlife to determine their fate. He’s depicted as a man with the head of a jackal carrying a staff featured on temples and tombs all over Egypt.
Set was the God of chaos, storms, pestilence, and war, plus was translated as the Destroyer & the Instigator of Confusion. He is considered a symbol of evil for killing his brother Osiris the ruler of Egypt who then became the ruler of the underworld and brought a new age of darkness to Egypt. Set was initially a hero-god who ran away and even killed the serpent Apep (Apophis) from the sun ship barge of the Ra sun god. He was seen as a necessary evil and a balance to the good, fertility, and vitality of both Osiris and Horus. He is seen as the first murderer in existence as he killed his own brother Osiris to usurp the golden throne of Egypt. He is a desert god who brought devilish winds to the Nile River in order to steal the throne and take control. For eight years, he battled his nephew the sky god Hours in the place which became known as the Edfu Temple, and in the end, Horus won and was declared king of Egypt. He is depicted as a red beast like a fox with cloven hooves and a forked tail that spreads catastrophes like storms, tsunamis, volcanoes, and any kind of disaster.
Nephthys is a funerary goddess, one of the primal first five gods of Nut and Geb, the twin of Isis, the wife of Set, and the mother of Anubis from Osiris. She is considered to be a dark goddess opposite to the light of her sister Isis the goddess of healing and motherhood. Her name means "Mistress of the Temple Enclosure" or "Mistress of the House" and is depicted as a woman with a house on her head. She is known to be a friend of the dead as she cares for the souls in the afterlife and she guided professional mourners at funerals, who would encourage the open expression of grief through melodies known as the "Kites of Nephthys". She was seen as a dark deity opposite the light of her sister Isis. She played a key part in the Osiris Myth as she loved Osiris, she transformed herself into the form of Isis to seduce him and that’s how Anubis came to be. She betrayed the location of Osiris's corpse to Set but later on helped Isis revive his soul from the underworld.
Nut was the primordial sky goddess who was the wife of the Geb the god of Earth and the mother of Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys. She was created by Shu and Tefnut the offspring of Atum creates the world and when Atum reunited with them, he shed tears of joy which created humanity. Shu and Tefnut give birth to Geb (Earth) and Nut (Sky) and they, in turn, fell in love and had the four original gods despite Amun's refusal who stated that Nut could not give birth on any day of the year so Thoth the god of wisdom was able to win five days with a gamble with the moon god thus providing five days to give birth to five children. Each limb represented a cardinal point when her body stretched over the earth. She was often depicted swallowing the sun in the evening and giving birth to the sun at night.
Shu is a primordial god of air whose name means "Emptiness". He was one of the first two gods ever created by Atum with his sister-wife Tefnut. Shu was the god of the air, sunlight, god of the upper atmosphere above the earth, and dry air and his wife was the goddess of moisture. He was depicted as a man wearing a headdress in the form of a plume, which is also the hieroglyph for his name. His job was to separate the sky from the earth. When he and Tefnut returned to Ra after a long time, he cried tears of joy which led to the creation of humanity. Shu and Tefnut gave birth to Geb and Nut who gave birth to the rest of the ancient Egyptian gods. The mist was known as "Lakes of Shu" and the clouds as "Bones of Shu" plus he was also associated with brightness and light.
Tefnut was the sister-wife of Shu, daughter of Atum (Ra), the goddess of moisture, and corrosive air, plus was depicted either as a lioness or a woman with a lioness’s head. She was the mother of Nut and Geb. She and her husband were the first gods created by Atum. She is the goddess of the atmosphere of the lower world, the earth.
Bastet is a beautiful & enchanting goddess of cats, a guardian from evil & misfortune, fertility, and the daughter of Ra who was loved by all who distributed her talismans and amulets on all her subjects & worshippers. She was worshipped as early as the Second Dynasty (2890 BCE) and so revered as in 525 BCE the Persians used the Egyptian devotion to Bastet against them when they painted images of Bastet on their shield and drove cats in front of their armies and as a result, the Egyptians lost the battle of Pelusium instead of offending their gods. Bastet and Sekhmet were known to be two aspects of the same goddess, as Sekhmet represented the powerful warrior and guardian aspect while Bastet was depicted as a cat which represented a gentler aspect more forgiving. She was depicted as a cat or a woman with a cat’s head. Her myth was used to create the DC character "Catwoman".
Thoth was the god of wisdom, knowledge, and truth who was credited as the inventor of writing and the record-keeper of the gods. He was one of the most important and famous deities in the Egyptian pantheon who was worshipped from the Predynastic Period (6000-3150 BCE) all the way to the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE). He invented writing and was the record-keeper of the gods plus he became known by many titles as "Lord of Time" and "Reckoner of Years" as he recorded the passing of time through his deep knowledge of the magical effect of words and had the power to give Pharaohs and kings a longer reign thus maintaining his order across the earth. He is beloved among humanity for providing people with the blessed gifts of the written words. He is also the patron of libraries and scribes plus he was able to give Nut five days of moonlight so she can be able to give birth to the original five gods without disobeying Amun. He is also known to be a benefactor of humanity as he gave them the gift of the written word. Along with Osiris, He stands to keep records in the Hall of Truth during the Weighing of the heart. His consort is Seshat and is depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon holding a writing implement and his wife or daughter was Seshat who was his female counterpart and the goddess of libraries and books.
The glorious god Ptah is the ruler of the city of Memphis, lord of truth, creator of the world, and one of the most ancient Egyptian deities since the first dynastic period (3150-2613 BC) but many believe that Ptah is actually from the Predynastic Period (6000-3150 BCE), who appeared under the name "Ptah-Nun" or "Ptah-Naunet". Ptah is the main patron god of craftsmen, sculptors, builders, plus all artists of all kinds. Ptah deity is one of the oldest gods in Egyptian mythology; he is often confused with the sun god Ra as the creator of the universe as there are different stories showing him standing on the primordial mound of the ben-ben at the time of the creation of the world where he used to be an early fertility god. He is seen as a mummified man who wears a skull cap and holds the Was scepter combined with the Ankh and the Djed forming the scepter of authority. The name of Egypt was derived from the Greek word Aigyptos which corresponds to the word Hat-Ka-Ptah which means "Temple of the Soul of Ptah" located in Memphis city. Ptah was known by many names as Ptah-Nun, Ptah-Naunet, Ptah-hotep, and Ptah-Sokar-Osiris.
Khonsu (Chonsu, Kons, Khensu, or Chons) is the God of the moon and vengeance, his name means the Traveler plus he had the titles "Pathfinder" and "Embracer" and "Defender". He is shown as a mummy holding a crook and a flail with a moon disc on his head and uraeus. He played a great role in the creation of new life in the image of living creatures. Across the walls of his temple at the Karnak is the creation myth where Khonsu is depicted as the "Greatest God of the Great Gods" and as the grand snake who fertilizes the Cosmic Egg in the creation of the world. He was a part of the Theban triad with his father Amun and Mother Mut. He was very popular, revered, and worshiped as one of the greatest gods especially during the days of the new kingdom (1570-1050 BC) because of his miraculous abilities like the instant healing of the sick. His story is also used for Marvel’s superhero "Moon Knight".
Khnum is the original patron god of potters and every single artist & craftsman who works in ceramic & pottery, and he is also considered the main source of the Nile. He originated from the Nubia in Upper Egypt where he grow in power and fame. He is one of the oldest gods in history and Egyptian mythology, plus was known as the god guardian of the source of the Nile. He gained the title "Divine Potter" and "Lord of Created Things from Himself". He was the guardian patron deity of the Island Elephantine. He was responsible for the creation of humans from the clay of the Nile River, then, he held the clay statues towards them to Ra "The Sun God", to give them life then the souls of humans were placed in the womb to then breathe and exist on earth. He is depicted as the ram-headed god who represents fertility and virility. Khnum was referred to as the "Father of the Fathers" and the goddess Neith as the "Mother of the Mothers" at the temple of Esna.
Hapi is the prime god of fertility and Nile silt is associated with the inundation which was the main source of the Nile that the ancient Egyptian farmers relied on for growing their crops. He is celebrated as a great god who became "Lord of the River Bringing Vegetation" and "Lord of the Fish and Birds of the Marshes". The cult of Hapi was located at the First Cataract of the island Elephantine. Hapi is shown depicted as a man with a large belly and breasts signifying success and fertility who personified the Nile River at the time of the flood.
Sobek is the Crocodile God, the lord of wetlands and marshes, and unexpected death with a connection with medicine and surgery. He is a very famous god in Egyptian mythology, especially in the old kingdom, who is associated with procreation, fertility, medicine, and the Nile which was considered to be the sweat of Sobek. He is dedicated as a man with a crocodile’s head and his cult was known to have live crocodiles. He lived on a mythical mountain at the horizon where he ruled with absolute power and was linked with Ra to form what is known to be Sobek-Ra. He had a great connection with the Nile as it was considered to be his sweat.
Bes is a famous Dwarf god that symbolizes childbirth, fertility, and humor. He is the protector & guardian against evil spirits, the protector of women, and children, the common man, the guardian against evil, and the warrior of divine order, balance, and justice. He is known to be as more than a divine spirit as he was depicted across many everyday items such as mirrors, furniture, knife handles, and more. His consort is the hippopotamus goddess Taweret of fertility and childbirth. Bes is depicted s a bearded dwarf with large ears, a lion-like mane, and a pug nose. His amulets and sculptures were considered a source of fun and good luck.
The Great Goddess of the hippopotamus "Tawaret" stands as a symbol of childbirth and fertility. She was renowned across the history of ancient Egypt as the protector of children and an vitale aid to women during their birth and pregnancy. The female hippo is very protective of her children while the male hippo is very dangerous and aggressive and can be seen as associated with Set. She can be seen on household items such as furniture, pots, cosmetic cases, spoons, and more. She is known to be one of the followers of the sky Falcon god of protection & victory "Horus" as she is very content with the goddess of beauty "Hathor". She is the consort of the god Bes of entertainment, and humor.
The goddess Neith is one of the oldest ancient Egyptian goddesses represented in Lower Egypt as she was worshipped there in the predynastic period (6000 – 3150 BC) until the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty (323 – 30 BC). She is depicted as a war, funerary, mother, warrior, and creator goddess plus she was the patron of the city of Sais in the Nile Delta. She is dedicated and seen with a bow and arrows which explains why she gained the name Mistress of the Bow. She is famous as the Grandmother of the gods because she is known to be connected with the waters of chaos Nun, and known to be the inventor of birth plus the process of living and growing all sorts of things. She is depicted as a judge in the Hall of Truth and the protector & helper of the dead.
She is known as the scorpion goddess who was worshipped in the first dynasty (3150 – 2890 BC) all the way across the history of ancient Egypt as her golden statue was found in the tomb of Tutankhamen. She is an early mother goddess who protected children and people from the dangers of the scorpion and all kinds of venoms. Serket is known to follow Isis's example and be a symbol of forgiveness and protection after Isis healed a boy from the venom of a scorpion whose mother insulted Isis and then was forgiven by her. All of her priests were physicians who used her name and teaching in the healing of the ill and wounded. She also played a part in guiding the souls of the dead to Paradise and protecting them from any danger.
She is a unique goddess of the vultures, known to be one of the oldest goddesses of Egypt that dates back to the first dynasty (3150 – 2890 BC). She is the patron of the Pharaoh and is often shown spread over the king with her wings. She comes in the shape of a vulture who was the guardian of Upper Egypt. Her shrine was in the city of the dead Nekheb. She was associated with her sister Wadjet who they were called "The Two Ladies".
One of the most famous and oldest protective Egyptian goddesses in the history of ancient Egypt starts from the predynastic period when it was worshipped as a goddess of lower Egypt. Like her sister, she is one of her daughters of Ra. She played an important role in creation which involved the planting of the first Papyrus in the swamps of the Nile delta and helped Isis hide & raise Horus to total safety away from Set. She was known as West-Hekau which means "Great of Magic" as she offered protection against bad luck, evil spirits, demons, and ghosts. She was represented as a rearing Cobra known as the King's Uraeus.
Kherty is an important god who ferried the dead into the afterlife, He is a ram-headed god of the underworld who ruled the underworld during the old kingdom before Osiris became the Ruler of the Underworld. He was the god of the Duat who was seen as a recumbent and mummified ram. During the Old Kingdom (2613-2181 BCE) Kherty was believed to rule the afterlife with Osiris. He took control of the entrance and the hallways leading to the hall of truth and the fields of reeds which he greeted the dead once they arrived. He is shown as the protector of the kings but also as an enemy of the order who threatened the deceased kings on the way to the underworld.
Nefertum is the beautiful god of perfume and sweet aromas, who was born from the essence of a blue lotus at the dawn of creation. His name means "Beautiful One Who Closes" or "One Who Does Not Close", a beautiful Atum who was associated with enchanting & sweet-smelling flowers. Nefertem is the son of the creator god Ptah, and the goddesses Sekhmet and Bast were called his mother. He represents the first sunlight and the enchanting smell of the Egyptian blue lotus flower. He represented the concepts of transformation and rebirth due to his connection with flowers and gods. He played a role in providing healing aromas to cure disease and wounds. He is seen as a handsome young man with blue water-lily flowers around his head.
The Renenutet is a very special and unique goddess who was depicted as a cobra or a rearing cobra on the head of a Queen, her name means "Snake Who Nourishes" as she was the goddess of raising children and nursing. She had the power to determine the length of a person's life and their entire destiny. She was viewed as Atum's wife or consort, and the mother of Osiris. She is associated with the goddess of destiny and childbirth Meskhenet who played a role in determining the length of a person’s life and everyone’s most important life events. She is connected with Neith and is referred to as the mother of Osiris. She was seen as a fertility goddess that was linked to the Nile River, the inundation, and the god Hapi of the fertile mud of the Nile River. In the afterlife, she was known as the lady of justifications due to her link with Ma'at. She was known as the lady of the fertile fields and the lady of granaries who protected the harvest of the grains with Hapi. She was known as "Lady of the Robes" as she protected the clothing worn by the king. She was seen as a grain goddess known as "Lady of the Fertile Fields" and "Lady of the Granaries" that protected the harvest. She would appear as a fire-breathing cobra protecting the pharaoh from his enemies.
The Heka is one of the most important ancient Egyptian gods, who is the Patron of medicine and magic and was the primordial source of knowledge and power in the universe. The Heka was known as "Before Duality Had Yet Come Into Being" and was created before the gods and was present during the creation of the universe and even before Atum. He is seen as the son of Menhet, Neith, and Khnum. He is depicted as a man carrying a knife and a staff plus his physicians were known as the priests of Heka who can practice magic and medicine which explains why it became a very famous god among doctors. Heka has a very close connection with the power of word and speech because in the world of Egyptian magic both action and words had a powerful impact. It is believed that he killed two serpents and then entwined them to his staff as a symbol of his power which was later passed to the Greeks who created the caduceus that is found in the hands of Hermes. Nowadays, the caduceus is confused with the magical rod of Asclepius.
The magical deified horizon god and the guardian of the western and eastern horizons of the afterlife Aker was known as an earthly and underworld god who was responsible for protecting the sun barges of the Sun God Ra when leavening and entering the underworld during dawn and dusk. Its job was to create a mythological bridge between the two horizons of Egypt using his body. He is connected with a number of gods which are Geb, Ra, and Khepri. He is depicted as a sundeck located between two back and back lions merged by the torso while looking away from each other. Aker stands as a representation of the underworld itself. The lions are known by Duaj as "Yesterday" and the other Sefer as "Tomorrow".
The glorious Onuris "Anhur" was the deity of hunting and war whose name means "He Who Brings Back The Distant One" which can be traced back to the story of the Eye of Ra where the eye of Horus is transformed into a lion then hunted by Onuris then returned to Ra where it transforms again into Mekhit who then becomes his consort. He is depicted as the son of Ra and is associated with the god Shu. He is known formerly to become the personification of royal warriors and the patron god of hunters and the Egyptian army who always lead them to battle to win and bring them home safely. He is depicted as a great bearded man who wears a headdress with four feathers and a robe while wearing a lance or a spear plus he has occasionally a lion-headed god that represents divine strength.
The miraculous sun disk of Aten was created by pharaoh Akhenaten (1353-1336 BCE) as part of his mission to declare monotheism under the sole god creator of the universe Aten across the lands of Egypt that was always based on the principle of polytheism. Aten is based on one of the aspects of the sun god Ra and it is mentioned by Akhenaten as the giver of life and nurturing spirit of the world. The major cult of Aten was located in the Amarna and was dismantled by the famous Tutankhamun.
The legendary avian deity of the Bennu Bird is a golden deity of creation and resurrection which acted as the inspiration for the Greek bird the Phoenix. It was featured very closely with the great gods of ancient Egypt which include Atum (RA) where it first appeared at the dawn of creation and flew over the primordial waters. The Bennu bird represented the concept of rebirth, sun, and creation which was the Ba of RA. It was very associated with Osiris and was known by the names the "He Who Came Into Being by Himself", and "Lord of Jubilees". It took the city of Heliopolis as it is headquarters plus it is very connected to the ancient myth of creation.
The ancient Egyptian God of the earth and growing crops and plants whose laugh caused earthquakes plus the father of snakes. Geb is the son of Shu and Tefnut, husband of Nut the goddess of the sky. Geb is one of the oldest gods in ancient Egyptian history and acts as part of the Heliopolitan Ennead. He is known to have given birth to Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, Heru-ur, and Nehebkau with his consorts Nut, Tefnut, and Renenutet. He is associated with healing, earth, vegetation plus underworld, and royalty. He is connected with the mythological divine creator goose that laid a world egg where the world is located on.
The Khepri god is a solar deity known as an aspect of the sun god Ra and part of Atum which is shown by the scarab beetle and represents the rising morning sun. It represents the concept of renewal of life and creation which is expected from the famous Scarab beetle that had an impact on the ancient Egyptian civilization. Khepri acts as the main creator Sun-God, protector, and god of resurrection plus known for his ability to renew the day with every new sun. The Khepri is seen as a scarab beetle head and the body of a man.
The falcon war god mount came into existence and at the highest prominence in the 11th dynasty at the divine golden lands of Thebes (2060-1991 BCE). He is very associated with the sun god Ra as Montu was seen as a manifestation of the burning effect of Ra. Montu stands as a symbol of the union of the kingship of both Lower and Upper Egypt and when linked with Horus, it was seen as a powerful war god. The war god Montu is depicted as a falcon-headed or bull-headed man as a symbol of strength with his head surrounded by the solar disk and two feathers plus he is seen carving a number of weapons like a spear, bow, and arrows. He is sometimes confused with Onuris “Anhur” the son of Ra and the patron of the army and hunters who became known as "He Who Brings Back The Distant One".
The Uat-Ur Wadj-wer is seen as the personification of the Mediterranean Sea which became known as “The Great Green”. He is believed to be the embodiment of the swamps, lakes, and lagoons of the Delta region found near the Mediterranean Sea. He was worshipped as old as the Old Kingdom (2613-2181 BCE) and remained very active throughout the history of Egypt. He was seen at Abusir in the mortuary temple of the pyramid of Sahure and at the tomb of the son of pharaoh Ramesses III prince Amunherkhepeshef, with a huge resemblance to the god Hapi.
Nemty was the god of the ferrymen and was seen as a falcon who stands on a boat, which his name means the one who travels. The god of ferrymen is known to be the main patron of Badari which used to be Horus’s central cult. His cult can be found in Annapolis. He played a role in the myth of Osiris, as he transported the goddess Isis by a boat through the Nile River.
The great primal goddess Mut is an early mother goddess who played a minor role in the Predynastic Period (6000-3150 BCE) as part of the Theban triad as the wife of Amun and mother of Khonsu, who were worshipped as divine Karnak temples complex. She was the result of the primordial waters of Nu and was associated and seen with Sekhmet and Bastet. She had the role of being the guardian over the lives of people and as mentioned in the book of the dead as the savior of the souls trapped in the afterlife by demons. She has seen a divine protector who guarded the kings and the state from any conspirators and traitors who she later burned in a flaming brazier. Mut was seen as a beautiful woman with Vulture wings, holding an Ankh, and wearing the united crown of Upper and Lower Egypt with the feather of Maat at her feet.
Sekhmet was one of the most recognized goddesses of ancient Egypt who was the goddess of destruction, vengeance, and healing plus the desert winds and cool breezes. She was depicted as a strong woman with the head of a lion who was mentioned as "The Female Powerful One". She was the daughter of the sun god Ra who created Sekhmet as a tool for destruction because of the sins of humanity. She was seen as responsible for any natural disasters or plagues that affected humanity plus she had the power to heal as a mistress of life. Ra was able to absorb her blood lust through a vat of beer dyed red where she was able to drink it then she fell into a deep sleep where she was transformed into Hathor.
The God of grains Neper is known to be the son of Renenutet the harvest goddess who was personified as corn and was very closely associated With Osiris when he was a fertility god to the point where he was mentioned as the one who lived after dying. He was known as the lord of the mouth and a source of nourishment with main barley and emmer wheat.
The god of the spoken word "Hu" was seen as the personification of the first word that was spoken by Ra (Atum) during the dawn of creation which brought everything into reality. Hu is very linked to the concept of Sia and Heka. The Sia was seen as a representation of the heart, Hu was seen as the tongue, and the Heka represented the underlying force that gave them their power. The Hu is a representation of the Heka power of Atum plus it is depicted in many funerary texts as a guiding the soul to the afterlife.
The great Vizier of Pharaoh Djoser "Imhotep" (2667-2600 BCE) was the key figure behind the design and construction of the Step Pyramid. He was a polymath expert in countless fields of study, whose name means "He Who Comes in Peace". He was seen as the god of medicine and wisdom plus was very famous among the Greeks with Aesculapius who was famous for his healing spells. All his medical treaties stood very strong against the conventional belief that disease was a punishment from the gods and that disease was natural in origin. Due to his natural gift, he later on lifted to the state of god as a symbol of intellect and reasonable thinking.
Sia was seen as the personification of thoughtfulness and perception who represented the heart that acted as the seat of thought, emotion, and character. Sia formed a triad with Hu and Heka plus she created a day with her tongue of Hu. It is one of the primordial forces of the cosmos which enforced life and sustained Maat. Sia is the spiritual embodiment of the intellect while Hu is a magical symbol of the word of Ptah and Atum that made thoughts into a reality. Sia is seen as a man who stands on the right side of Ptah and held his papyrus scroll. He is seen in the Valley of the Kings as a member of the ship Crew abroad Ra’s sun barge.
Menhit was a solar deity of war who was seen offering the brow of Ra, who came from Nubia and was depicted as a roaring lioness that was associated with the moon. She stood as a symbol for the Eye of Ra’s vengeful side. She was worshipped in the divine lands of Abydos in her central cult and in the delta region as a protective goddess with Wadjet and Neith. She was believed to be the embodiment of the eyes of Ra who was hunted and returned by Onuris.
The great goddess Mafet was seen as a symbol of justice who executed swift judgment. She was known as "She Who Runs" for the speed with which she spread justice. She appeared as a judge in the afterlife and was very popular from the Early Dynastic Period (3150-2613 BCE) all the way to the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE) to the point where she even predate Sekhmet and Bastet. She was the main protector from the venomous bites of scorpions. She was represented as a woman with the face of a Cat, a lynx, leopard, or cheetah that golds a rope, and an executioner’s blade.
The Goddess of fertility Anuket is responsible for the cataract of the Nile River at Aswan who was responsible for Egypt’s southern frontier regions and was worshipped at Elephantine Island. She was known as "Clasper" or "Embracer". She was the daughter of Ra and was very connected to Hathor, Bastet, and Sekhmet. She was seen as a woman wearing a beautiful headdress that was associated with cowry, bow, arrows, and ostrich feathers. She is seen as a scepter which was topped with an ankh plus her symbolic animal was the gazelle.
Seshat was the goddess of writing, notations, wisdom, knowledge, books, and measurements her name means "The Female Scribe" and she was the daughter and consort of Thoth the god of wisdom and writing. Like her father, she was the patroness of public and private libraries and scribes, she was the patroness of builders, architects, and those who dealt in measurements and accounting for cattle, and spoils of war. The goddess of architecture, astronomy, mathematics, astrology, accounting, building, and surveying. Her name means "She Who is Foremost in the House of Books" which was first mentioned in the Second Dynasty (2890-2670 BCE). She is depicted as a strong beautiful woman wearing leopard skin over a robe with a headband while holding a stick with an on-top star.
The Goddess of childbirth Meskhenet is known to be one of the oldest deities of Egypt who was located at the time of birth and created the Ka which represents the soul that later she breathed into the one’s body. She provided the person’s destiny based on their character. She played the role of a comforter that was present during the time of judgment in the afterlife. She was present during the life of every individual from birth to death and after death. She had the image of a birthing brick that had the head of a woman. Throughout the history of ancient Egypt, she was very respected and worshipped in the homes of ancient Egyptians.
Ancient Egyptian history has marvelous stories to discover and share; so explore the breathtaking archaeological destinations across this majestic civilization by immersing yourself in an unforgettable journey to Egypt. Check our Egypt vacations packages and choose your trip onboard one of our magical Nile river cruises and cast your eyes on the stunning artifacts of Egypt.
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