The eye of Horus is one of the most famous symbols of ancient Egyptian civilization. It has been recognized symbols of royal power, protection, good health, rejuvenation, and victory. It is also known as Wadjet, Wedjat or Udjat, which wasn't meant to be confused with the Eye of Ra which represented many of the same concepts. The eye of Horus was used as by both the living and the dead as a funerary amulet for its powerful protective powers as many ancient Egyptian sailors would paint the symbol on their ship to ensure a safe sea journey.
The origin of the eye of Horus can be traced to the predynastic period, where the myth of Set and Osiris came to be. The ancient Egyptians believed that at the time the king of Egypt Osiris was killed by his brother Set the god of chaos, desert, and war using a devilish scum and became the new king of Egypt which new age of darkness spread over the land. Osiris's wife Isis managed to bring her husband to the world of the living once again through magic which led to her being pregnant with Horus and then Osiris was killed again, and his body was cut to countless pieces by Set. Osiris became the ruler of the underworld and Horus was raised by his mother Isis and was taught to be a warrior so he could avenge his father.
When Horus came of age, he fought his uncle in a series of battles and was able to win, but it cost him his eye. So believe his eye was lost by Set who ripped it out, tore it into six pieces and threw it away, another theory states that it was Horus himself who took his eye out as a sacrifice to bring back his father from the dead. The eye was later restored by his consort Hathor the goddess of Beauty, joy, health, and love or by Thoth the god of Wisdom. The Amulets of the eye were made out of Gold, Lapis Lazuli & carnelian and used for both the dead and the living.
The eye of Horus also holds mathematical knowledge as each piece of the six-part of the eye is given a fraction as a unit of measurement the right side of the eye is 1/2, the pupil is 1/4, the eyebrow is 1/8, the left side of the eye is 1/16, the curved tail is 1/32, and the teardrop is 1/64. All these fractions add up to 63/64, and the missing part is believed to either represent the magical abilities and powers of Thoth or to illustrate the notion that nothing is truly perfect.
Besides the mathematical significance, each part had a connection with a different sense, the right side of the eye is associated with the sense of smell because it is the closest to the nose and resembles the organ. The pupil represents the sense of sight, while the eyebrow represents thought because it can be used to express our thoughts. The left side of the eye represents the sense of hearing because it points towards the ear, and resembles a musical instrument. The curved tail corresponds to the sense of taste because it resembles a sprout from a planted stalk of wheat or grain.
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