The legend of Queen Cleopatra is as immortal as time, everyone is familiar with the story of her cursed love that shaped the future of the entire history of Egypt. The entire world knows her tale and how she had the power to manipulate the hearts and desires of great rulers such as Caeser. The life of Queen Cleopatra is the story of a true survival that chooses to take control of her life and death.
Egyptian History is calcified into five sections:
- Ancient Egyptian period 3400 B.C to 335 B.C.
- The Greco Roman period 332 B.C to 30 B.C.
- The Coptic period.
- The Islamic period.
- The Modern period.
When The Greco Roman Period Began?
The Greco Roman period began with the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C He didn’t stay along in Egypt but he built a new capital in Egypt where the Nile meets the Mediterranean sea and called it Alexandria which is the 2nd largest city in Egypt and a must-see location to visit during your trip to Egypt.
When Alexander the Great died the empire split into many parts between his generals, with the most powerful generals each ruling a section. Egypt eventually fell under the reign of the Macedonian Greek general Ptolemy I Soter. The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled Egypt in 305 B.C end ended with the suicide of Cleopatra, at which time Egypt was annexed by Rome in 30 B.C and became part of the Roman Empire.
Who is Queen Cleopatra?
Queen Cleopatra VII is one of the most famous, beautiful, intelligent, and strong female rulers in history. She was the last ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, Queen Cleopatra was born around 69 B.C, and She is the daughter of King Ptolemy XII. In 51 B.C., Ptolemy XII died, leaving the throne to 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII. It is likely that the two siblings married, as was customary at the time to maintain the bloodline.
History of Queen Cleopatra
Soon after they assumed power, complications arose between Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII. Eventually, in 49 BC Cleopatra fled to Syria, where she assembled an army to defeat her rival brother in order to declare the throne for herself. In 48 B.C, she returned to Egypt with her military might and faced her brother at Pelusium, located on the empire’s eastern edge.
Around this same time, the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey was consuming Rome. Pompey eventually sought refuge in Egypt, but on orders by Ptolemy, Pompey was killed so Ptolemy can win Caesar’s good fortune and take him like an alley so he can defeat his sister Cleopatra. But she was able to infiltrate his royal palace and win his favor and make him fall in love with her. Cleopatra now had access to enough military muscle to dethrone her brother and solidify her grip on Egypt as a sole ruler. Caesar was able to defeat Ptolemy’s army and even followed him all the way to Alexandria where he killed him. Caesar restored Cleopatra to the throne because he loved her and he desired to take control of Egypt’s wealth and treasures so he can fun his climb to power back in Rome.
When Queen Cleopatra Ruled Egypt?
Following Caesar’s defeat of Ptolemy’s forces at the Battle of the Nile, Caesar restored Cleopatra to the throne. Soon after, Ptolemy XIII fled and drowned in the Nile.
In 47 B.C. Cleopatra bore Caesar a son, whom she called Ptolemy Caesar known as Caesarion. Cleopatra eventually followed Caesar back to Rome, but returned to Egypt in 44 B.C., following his assassination. She ruled Egypt as the queen and her son as the co-regent. Cleopatra became connected with the Goddess of motherhood Isis, the wife of the ruler of the underworld Osiris and the mother of the sky god Horus to declare herself as a holy royalty and she was often called the New Isis
In 41 B.C. Marc Antony, part of the Second Triumvirate that ruled Rome following the murder of Caesar, sent for Cleopatra so that she could answer questions about her allegiance to the empire’s fallen, leader. Cleopatra agreed to his request and made a lavish entrance into the city of Tarsus. Captivated by her beauty and personality, Antony plunged into a love affair with Cleopatra that would eventually produce three children, including twins named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene
In the year 34 B.C. Marc Antony of Caesar’s general sent a message for Cleopatra asking her to show her allegiance returned with Cleopatra to Alexandria with a triumphant flair. Cleopatra accepted his request and want to Rome to see him where she made an extravagant lavish entrance into the city of Tarsus to grab his attention and in turn, Anthony was enchanted by her beauty and her captivating personality, Antony began a love affair with Cleopatra which lead to the birth of three children, including twins named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene.
Crowds swarmed to the Gymnasium to catch a glimpse of the couple seated on golden thrones that were elevated on silver platforms. Beside them sat their children. Antony antagonized his rival in 34 BC by declaring Caesarion as Caesar’s real son and legal heir, rather than Caeser’s adoptive son Octavian, whom the revered Roman leader had adopted. Octavian, however, fought back, declaring he’d seized Antony’s will, and told the Roman people that Antony had turned over Roman possessions to Cleopatra and that there were plans to make Alexandria the Roman capital. As a result of Octavian’s actions, in 32 BC the Roman Senate stripped Antony of all his titles and declared war on Cleopatra and all her allies.
In the year 31 B.C., Cleopatra, and Antony combined armies to try to defeat Octavian in a raging sea battle at Actium, on Greece’s west coast. The clash, however, proved to be a costly defeat for the Egyptians, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee back to Egypt in Alexandria.
When And How Queen Cleopatra Died?
Antony soon returned to the battlefield, where he was falsely informed that Cleopatra had died. Upon hearing the news, the despondent Roman leader committed suicide by stabbing himself. Cleopatra followed her lover’s demise by ending her life as well by being bitten by an Egyptian Cobra. She died on August 12, 30 B.C. The two were buried together, as they had wished, and Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire. She died at the age of 39 and soon after her son Caeserion was arrested and executed.
So Egypt annexed to Rome by Caesar Augustus in 30 B.C, and he called Egypt Aegyptus, and it became a province of the Roman Empire Under his rule. They were responsible for the administration, protection, and finances of the entire province.
Cleopatra’s Skin Color
Queen Cleopatra was of Macedonian greek ancestry with some Persian and Syrian ancestry. After great research, both history and science proves she was not fully white or black despite having a black grandmother but was a pale olive skin with dark hair as portrayed as an eastern Mediterranean type on her official coins.
Tomb of Queen Cleopatra
Since 30 BC, The tomb of Cleopatra and Antony remains hidden but many scholars believe that it is located near Alexandria and various expeditions are still searching for this tomb.
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